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ZDoom organizes the lumps in several namespaces which correspond to different types of lumps. This allows to avoid conflicts if several lumps have the same name, but one is, for example, a texture while the other is a sound.

Lumps belong to a namespace or another depending on where they are in the archive. The archive format matters: in sequential archives (such as WAD files), they are delimited by marker lumps; in hierarchized archives, they are in a specific directory.

ZDoom uses the following lump namespaces:

Namespace Markers Directory Notes
Global Outside of markers / (Root directory)
Sprites S_ or SS_ /Sprites/ Lumps are added to the Sprite image type.
Flats F_ or FF_ /Flats/ Lumps are added to the Flat image type.
Colormaps C_ /Colormaps/ Optional
ACS Libraries A_ /ACS/
Textures TX_, HI_ /Textures/, /Hires/ Lumps are added to the Override image type.
Blood RAW N/A N/A Files with the .RAW extension in a RFF archive.
Blood SFX N/A N/A Files with the .SFX extension in a RFF archive.
Blood misc N/A N/A Apparently unused
Strife voices V_ /Voices/ Lumps are automatically assigned svox/<lumpname> as a SNDINFO logical name allowing them to be referenced directly in DIALOGUE scripts.
Hi-Res HI_ /HiRes/
Sounds No specific markers /Sounds/
Patches No specific markers /Patches/ Lumps are added to the Wall Patch image type. While not used by the engine, P_ or PP_ markers are often used anyway.
Graphics No specific markers /Graphics/ Lumps are added to the Misc Patch image type. The Doom alpha and beta used the L_ marker here.
Music No specific markers /Music/
Skin N/A N/A All lumps in an archive containing a S_SKIN lump are placed in a namespace specific to that skin.
Voxels VX_ /Voxels/

There is also a sort of equivalent of namespaces for images. The texture manager uses the following types:

Name Description Namespace TEXTURES keyword
Any Graphics that do not fit into any other category. N/A N/A
Wall These have priority over flats when applied on a sidedef. N/A WallTexture
Flat These have priority over walls when applied on a floor or ceiling. Flats Flat
Sprite Needs to be of the form NAMEfa or NAMEfafa, see sprite for more information. Sprites Sprite
Wall Patch The building bricks of composite textures created through TEXTUREx or TEXTURES. Patches N/A
Build See Build tiles for more information. N/A N/A
Skin Sprite These have priority over sprites for players using the corresponding skin. Skin N/A
Decal They are defined in DECALDEF N/A N/A
Misc Patch Miscellaneous graphics Graphics Graphic
Font Character See font formats for more information. N/A N/A
Override Has priority on both flats and walls. Textures Texture
Autopage Automap background. N/A N/A
Null An "empty" texture that is never displayed (e.g., TNT1A0). N/A N/A
FirstDefined The first texture defined in a TEXTUREx lump (e.g., DoomWikiLogoIcon.pngAASTINKY). N/A N/A